1. Research Gap
(1) Previous random walks based approaches mainly find the structural information without considering the semantics; (2) Other approaches rely on complex inputs (e.g. meaningful metapaths, that is, sequences of node types) or implicit semantic information (e.g. prior distribution specific to a dataset); (3) None of the approaches can learn embeddings of semantic neighbors, even if not directly connected (i.e. not structural neighbors).
2. Contributions: A novel approach that (1) leverages edge relatedness to derive the embedding construction (better than using nodes), (2) learns domainspecific embeddings by using some input predicates, (3) requires simpler input, and (4) considers an embedding refinement strategy based on penalty functions and semantic proximity.
2. Preliminaries

Heterogeneous Networks: A graph \(G = (V,E)\) with node and edge type mapping functions \(\tau_V : V \mapsto T_V\) and \(\tau_E: E \mapsto T_E\) is called heterogeneous if nodes (resp. edges) of the graph have different types, i.e., \(\lvert T_V \rvert > 1\) (resp. \(T_E > 1\)). The work of this paper considers mainly knowledge graphs (KGs) aka heterogeneous information networks. A KG is a directed node and edge labeled multigraph \(G = (V, E, U)\) i.e. (entities, predicates, triples representing directed labeled edges).

Graph Embedding: A graph embedding model \(h: v \mapsto \mathbb{R}^d\) projects nodes into a low dimensional vector space where \(d \ll \lvert V \rvert\).

Predicate Relatedness: Given a KG \(G = (V, E, U)\) and a pair of predicates \((p_i, p_j) \in E\), the relatedness measure is based on:
 Triple Frequency: \(TF(p_i, p_j) = \log(1 + C_{i, j})\), and
 Inverse Triple Frequency: \(ITF(p_j, E) = \log \frac{\lvert E \rvert}{\lvert \{ p_k: C_{k. j} > 0 \} \rvert}\),
where \(C_{i, j}\) counts the number of times the predicates \(p_i\) and \(p_j\) link the same subjects and objects. Based on \(TF\) and \(ITF\), we can build a symmetric matrix \(A\) where \(A(i,j) = TF(p_i, p_j) \times ITF(p_j, E)\). The final predicate relatedness matrix is constructed as: \[ R(i, j) = \cos(A[i,:]^T, A[j, :]^T). \]
Note: \(TF\) indicates how often the predicates \(p_i\) and \(p_j\) are shared by the same subjectobject pairs; \(ITF\) penalizes the score for \(p_j\) if it is too common or overloaded. Overall, each cell in \(A\) indicates how special of \(p_j\) is to \(p_i\). And the relatedness score indicates the similarity between the predicates.
3. RelatednessDriven Walk Generation
Note: From the recommender, this section is not worth detailed reading as it contains many small logical problems and the techniques are of minal improvement.
Let \(IP\), the input predicates for generating domaindriven embeddings. Let \(u \in V\) be the current node and \(v \in Ne(u)\) be the next node to be chosen from the neighbors of \(u\). Let \(E(u)\) be the set of predicates between \(u\) and its neighbors.

Semantic Relatedness Driven Walk: (1) Compute the relatedness between each predicate linked to the neighbors and all the input predicates; (2) The strategy picks the next node via the the highest relatedness scores. Mathematically, \[ v = \text{argmax}_{p_i \in E(u), p_j \in IP, v \in Ne(u)} R(p_i, p_j) \]
Note: The paper’s original mathematical expressions are WRONG in my understanding.

Relatedness Driven Jump and Stay Walk: The first approach is somewhat biased because it considers only the highest relatedness score. To overcome, (1) for the first \(M\) steps if any \(R(p_i, p_j) > \alpha\), we stay (using the equation above), otherwise we jump (choosing a random neighbor); (2) starting from \((M+1)\)th step, for every move we choose a random node.
Note: The confusion here is whether or not we choose a random node in the neighbors or any others in (2). In my understanding, (2) corresponds to a jump.

Randomized Relatedness Driven Walk: Select the next node in the subset of neighbors with top\(k\) highest relatedness scores randomly.
Note: The subset of neighbors might be of size smaller than \(k\) when a neighbor \(v\) has more than \(1\) top\(k\) scores.

Probabilistic Relatedness Driven Walk: Sample \(v\) from the distribution of the highest relatedness scores.
4. Learning Node Embeddings
Use Skipgram with Negative Sampling to maximize the cooccurence probability among nodes that appear in a walk exsited in the corpus and minimize that for node pairs that do not exist.
5. NESP: Embedding Refinement via Semantic Proximity
The loss function is refined by adding constraints that each context node is selected from the semantic neighbors of the center node, and minimizing the radius of the neighborhood for each center node. Special regularization is employeed to convert the nonconvex constrained (?) optimization problem into an unconstrained one.
References
 Chekol, Melisachew Wudage and G. Pirrò. “Refining Node Embeddings via Semantic Proximity.” SEMWEB (2020).